|Allspice||1 tsp||1/2 tsp cinnamon plus 1/2 tsp ground cloves.|
|Apple pie spice||1 tsp||1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom.|
|Arrowroot, as thickener||1 Tbsp||2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
1 Tbsp cornstarch
|1 tsp||1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 tsp cream of tartar and 1/4 tsp cornstarch;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt; (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 Tbsp);
1 1/2 tsp phosphate or tartrate baking powder.
|Bay leaf, crushed||1 tsp||1 whole bay leaf.|
|Brandy||1/4 cup||1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup.|
|1/4-1/3 cup||1 slice bread;
1/4 cup cracker crumbs;
2/3 cup rolled oats;
|1/2-3/4 cup||1 slice bread.|
|Broth, beef or chicken||1 cup||1 bouillon cube, 1 tsp (1 envelope) powdered broth base or 1 tsp instant granules dissolved in 1 cup water.|
|Butter||1 cup||1 cup margarine;
7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt.
|Catsup||1 cup||1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 Tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking).|
|Chili Sauce||1 cup||1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 Tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, and dash of ground cloves and allspice.|
|Chives, finely chopped||1 Tbsp||1 Tbsp green onion tops, finely chopped.|
|Chocolate, unsweetened||1 oz||3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1 Tbsp butter or fat;
3 Tbsp carob powder plus 2 Tbsp water.
|Chocolate, semisweet||1-2/3 oz||1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar.|
|Chocolate chips, semisweet, melted||6 oz pkg|
|2 squares (2 oz) unsweetened chocolate, 2 Tbsp shortening and 1/2 cup sugar melted (2/3 cup).|
|Coconut, grated, dry||1 Tbsp||1 1/2 tbsp fresh coconut, grated.|
|Coconut milk||1 cup||1 cup milk.|
|Coconut cream||1 cup||1 cup cream.|
|Cornstarch||1 Tbsp||2 Tbsp all-purpose flour;
2 Tbsp granular tapioca;
1 Tbsp arrowroot.
|Corn syrup||1 cup||1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup water or other liquid called for in recipe;
1 cup honey.
|Cracker crumbs||3/4 cup||1 cup dry bread crumbs.|
half & half (10-12% fat)
|1 cup||1 1/2 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk;
1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk;
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted.
|coffee (20% fat)||1 cup||3 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk.|
|heavy (36-40% fat)||1 cup||1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk (for baking only, will not whip).|
|sour cream||1 cup||7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk;
1 cup yogurt;
1 1/8 cup powdered nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water and 1 Tbsp vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours);
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 Tbsp vinegar (allow to stand 5 minutes before using);
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup smooth cottage cheese blended together;
7/8 cup milk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 2 Tbsp butter or margarine.
|whipped cream||2 cups||1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus 1/2 tsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff.|
|Cream of tartar||1/2 tsp||1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar.|
|Dill, fresh||1 head||1 tsp dill seed.|
|Eggs whole, large||1 egg|
(3 1/3 Tbsp)
|2 1/2 Tbsp dried, sifted eggs plus 2 1/2 Tbsp water;
3 1/3 Tbsp frozen egg yolks, thawed;
1/2 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp vinegar and 1 Tbsp liquid (in baking);
1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 Tbsp cornstarch in baking;
Soften 1 Tbsp unflavored gelatin in 3 Tbsp cold water, add 3 tsp boiling water, cool and beat until frothy, add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 Tbsp);
1/4 cup commercial egg substitute.
|whites||1 egg white|
|2 tsp dried egg white plus 2 Tbsp water;
2 Tbsp frozen egg whites, thawed.
|yolks||1 egg yolk|
(1 1/3 Tbsp)
|2 Tbsp dried egg yolks plus 2 tsp water;
4 tsp frozen egg yolks, thawed.
|Flour, pastry||1 cup||7/8 cup all-purpose or bread flour.|
|cake||1 cup||7/8 cup all-purpose flour (1 cup less 2 Tbsp).|
|white, all-purpose for thickening||1 Tbsp||1/2 Tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch or arrowroot;
1 Tbsp quick-cooking tapioca;
1 Tbsp waxy rice or corn flour;
2 Tbsp granular cereal;
2 Tbsp browned flour;
1 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
|white, all-purpose for baking||1 cup||1 1/2 cups bread crumbs;
1 1/8 cups cake flour (1 cup plus 2 Tbsp);
7/8 to 1 cup corn meal;
1/2 cup cornstarch plus 1/2 cup rye, potato or rice flour (sift together 6 times, use with 2 tsp baking powder per cup in quick breads as wheat flour allergy substitute);
13/16 cup gluten flour (1 cup less 3 Tbsp);
5/8 cup potato flour;
7/8 cup rice flour;
1 1/3 cups rolled oats;
1 1/4 cups rye flour;
1/8 cup soy, cottonseed, peanut or carob flour plus 7/8 cup all-purpose flour;
1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup minus 1 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
|white, all-purpose, self-rising||1 cup||1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/4 tsp baking powder and 1/4 tsp salt.|
|Garlic||1 clove, small||1/8 tsp garlic powder or instant minced garlic;
1/2-1 tsp garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe).
|Gelatin, flavored||3-oz package||1 Tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice.|
|Ginger, candied or raw||1 Tbsp||1/8 tsp powdered ginger.|
|Herbs, fresh||1 Tbsp||1 tsp dried herbs.|
|Honey||1 cup||1 1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe).|
|Horseradish, grated fresh||1 Tbsp||2 Tbsp bottled horseradish.|
|Italian seasoning||1 tsp||1/4 tsp basil, 2/3 tsp dried parsley, and pinch oregano.|
|Lemon, whole||1 lemon||1 to 3 Tbsp juice, plus 2 to 2 1/2 tsp grated rind.|
|grated rind or peel||1 tsp||1/2 tsp lemon extract.|
|Lemon grass||1 Tbsp||1 Tbsp lemon peel.|
|Maple sugar, grated||1 Tbsp|
|1 Tbsp white sugar;
1 cup maple syrup (decrease liquid by 1/2 cup).
|Maple syrup||about 2 cups||Combine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 tsp maple flavoring.|
|Marshmallows, miniature||1 cup||10 large marshmallows.|
|Mayonnaise (for use in|
salads and salad dressings)
|1 cup||1 cup yogurt, sour cream or cottage cheese pureed in blender (use for all or part of mayonnaise called for in recipe).|
|Milk, buttermilk or sour||1 cup||1 cup minus 1 Tbsp sweet milk, plus 1 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice; let stand 5 minutes;
1 cup sweet milk plus 1 1/4-1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar;
1 cup yogurt (plain).
|skim||1 cup||1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 7/8 cup water.|
|whole||1 cup||1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
1 cup skim, 2% or reconstituted dry milk;
1 cup soy or almond milk;
1 cup fruit juice or potato water in baking;
1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking;
1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder by 2 tsp).
|sweetened condensed||1 cup||Combine 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp dry milk with 1/2 cup warm water and 3/4 cup sugar, mix well, may set pan in bowl of hot water to dissolve sugar.|
|Mint leaves, fresh chopped||1/4 cup||1 Tbsp dried mint leaves.|
|Molasses||1 cup||3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 Tbsp, decrease baking soda by 1/2 tsp, add 2 tsp baking powder;
3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 tsp cream of tartar, increase liquid in recipe by 5 Tbsp.
|Mushrooms, fresh||1 lb||3 oz dried plus 1 1/2 cups water;
1 8-oz can, drained weight.
|Mustard, dry||1 tsp||1 Tbsp prepared mustard;
1/2 tsp mustard seeds.
|Nuts||1 cup||1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products).|
|Oil (for sauteing)||1/4 cup||1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening or lard.|
|Onion||1 small||1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion;
1 1/3 tsp onion salt;
1 to 2 Tbsp instant minced onion;
1 tsp onion powder.
|Onion powder||1 tsp||1/4 cup fresh onion, chopped.|
|Orange||1 medium||6 to 8 Tbsp juice; 3/4 cup diced; 2 to 3 Tbsp grated rind.|
|Orange peel, dried||1 Tbsp||2 or 3 Tbsp grated fresh orange peel (peel of medium orange).|