Substitutions

Allspice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon plus 1/2 tsp ground cloves.
Apple pie spice1 tsp1/2 tsp cinnamon, 1/4 tsp nutmeg, and 1/8 tsp cardamom.
Arrowroot, as thickener 1 Tbsp2 Tbsp all-purpose flour.
1 Tbsp cornstarch
Baking powder,
double acting
1 tsp1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 tsp cream of tartar and 1/4 tsp cornstarch;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 5/8 tsp cream of tartar;
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/2 cup buttermilk, sour milk or yogurt; (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda, 1/2 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice plus sweet milk to make 1/2 cup (decrease liquid in recipe by 1/2 cup);
1/4 tsp baking soda plus 1/4 cup molasses (decrease liquid in recipe by 1-2 Tbsp);
1 1/2 tsp phosphate or tartrate baking powder.
Bay leaf, crushed1 tsp1 whole bay leaf.
Brandy 1/4 cup 1 tsp brandy extract plus enough water or liquid called for in recipe to make 1/4 cup.
Bread crumbs,
dry
1/4-1/3 cup1 slice bread;
1/4 cup cracker crumbs;
2/3 cup rolled oats;
Bread Crumbs,
soft
1/2-3/4 cup1 slice bread.
Broth, beef or chicken1 cup1 bouillon cube, 1 tsp (1 envelope) powdered broth base or 1 tsp instant granules dissolved in 1 cup water.
Butter 1 cup1 cup margarine;
7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated shortening plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup lard plus 1/2 tsp salt;
7/8 cup oil plus 1/2 tsp salt.
Catsup 1 cup1 cup tomato sauce plus 1/2 cup sugar and 2 Tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking).
Chili Sauce1 cup1 cup tomato sauce, 1/4 cup brown sugar, 2 Tbsp vinegar, 1/4 tsp cinnamon, and dash of ground cloves and allspice.
Chives, finely chopped1 Tbsp1 Tbsp green onion tops, finely chopped.
Chocolate, unsweetened 1 oz3 Tbsp cocoa plus 1 Tbsp butter or fat;
3 Tbsp carob powder plus 2 Tbsp water.
Chocolate, semisweet1-2/3 oz1 oz unsweetened chocolate plus 4 tsp sugar.
Chocolate chips, semisweet, melted6 oz pkg
(2/3 cup)
2 squares (2 oz) unsweetened chocolate, 2 Tbsp shortening and 1/2 cup sugar melted (2/3 cup).
Coconut, grated, dry1 Tbsp 1 1/2 tbsp fresh coconut, grated.
Coconut milk 1 cup1 cup milk.
Coconut cream1 cup1 cup cream.
Cornstarch1 Tbsp2 Tbsp all-purpose flour;
2 Tbsp granular tapioca;
1 Tbsp arrowroot.
Corn syrup1 cup 1 cup granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup water or other liquid called for in recipe;
1 cup honey.
Cracker crumbs 3/4 cup1 cup dry bread crumbs.
Cream:
half & half (10-12% fat)
1 cup1 1/2 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk;
1/2 cup coffee cream plus 1/2 cup milk;
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted.
coffee (20% fat)1 cup3 Tbsp butter plus 7/8 cup milk.
heavy (36-40% fat)1 cup1/3 cup butter plus 3/4 cup milk (for baking only, will not whip).
sour cream 1 cup7/8 cup buttermilk or sour milk;
1 cup yogurt;
1 1/8 cup powdered nonfat dry milk, 1/2 cup warm water and 1 Tbsp vinegar (mixture will thicken in refrigerator in a few hours);
1 cup evaporated milk plus 1 Tbsp vinegar (allow to stand 5 minutes before using);
1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 1 cup smooth cottage cheese blended together;
7/8 cup milk, 1 Tbsp lemon juice, and 2 Tbsp butter or margarine.
whipped cream2 cups1 cup chilled evaporated milk plus 1/2 tsp lemon juice, whipped until stiff.
Cream of tartar1/2 tsp1 1/2 tsp lemon juice or vinegar.
Dill, fresh1 head1 tsp dill seed.
Eggs whole, large1 egg
(3 1/3 Tbsp)
2 1/2 Tbsp dried, sifted eggs plus 2 1/2 Tbsp water;
3 1/3 Tbsp frozen egg yolks, thawed;
1/2 tsp baking powder, 1 Tbsp vinegar and 1 Tbsp liquid (in baking);
1 egg in every 3 can be replaced with 1 Tbsp cornstarch in baking;
Soften 1 Tbsp unflavored gelatin in 3 Tbsp cold water, add 3 tsp boiling water, cool and beat until frothy, add to recipe (reduce other liquid by 2 Tbsp);
1/4 cup commercial egg substitute.
whites1 egg white
(2 Tbsp)
2 tsp dried egg white plus 2 Tbsp water;
2 Tbsp frozen egg whites, thawed.
yolks1 egg yolk
(1 1/3 Tbsp)
2 Tbsp dried egg yolks plus 2 tsp water;
4 tsp frozen egg yolks, thawed.
Flour, pastry1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose or bread flour.
cake1 cup7/8 cup all-purpose flour (1 cup less 2 Tbsp).
white, all-purpose for thickening1 Tbsp1/2 Tbsp cornstarch, potato starch, rice starch or arrowroot;
1 Tbsp quick-cooking tapioca;
1 Tbsp waxy rice or corn flour;
2 Tbsp granular cereal;
2 Tbsp browned flour;
1 1/2 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
white, all-purpose for baking1 cup1 1/2 cups bread crumbs;
1 1/8 cups cake flour (1 cup plus 2 Tbsp);
7/8 to 1 cup corn meal;
1/2 cup cornstarch plus 1/2 cup rye, potato or rice flour (sift together 6 times, use with 2 tsp baking powder per cup in quick breads as wheat flour allergy substitute);
13/16 cup gluten flour (1 cup less 3 Tbsp);
5/8 cup potato flour;
7/8 cup rice flour;
1 1/3 cups rolled oats;
1 1/4 cups rye flour;
1/8 cup soy, cottonseed, peanut or carob flour plus 7/8 cup all-purpose flour;
1/3 cup wheat germ plus 2/3 cup all-purpose flour
1 cup minus 1 Tbsp whole wheat flour.
white, all-purpose, self-rising1 cup1 cup all-purpose flour plus 1 1/4 tsp baking powder and 1/4 tsp salt.
Garlic 1 clove, small1/8 tsp garlic powder or instant minced garlic;
1/2-1 tsp garlic salt (reduce amount salt called for in recipe).
Gelatin, flavored3-oz package 1 Tbsp plain gelatin plus 2 cups fruit juice.
Ginger, candied or raw 1 Tbsp1/8 tsp powdered ginger.
Herbs, fresh1 Tbsp1 tsp dried herbs.
Honey 1 cup1 1/4 cup sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use liquid called for in recipe).
Horseradish, grated fresh1 Tbsp2 Tbsp bottled horseradish.
Italian seasoning1 tsp 1/4 tsp basil, 2/3 tsp dried parsley, and pinch oregano.
Lemon, whole1 lemon1 to 3 Tbsp juice, plus 2 to 2 1/2 tsp grated rind.
grated rind or peel1 tsp1/2 tsp lemon extract.
Lemon grass1 Tbsp1 Tbsp lemon peel.
Maple sugar, grated 1 Tbsp
1/2 cup
1 Tbsp white sugar;
1 cup maple syrup (decrease liquid by 1/2 cup).
Maple syrup about 2 cupsCombine 2 cups sugar and 1 cup water, bring to clear boil; take off heat; add 1/2 tsp maple flavoring.
Marshmallows, miniature1 cup10 large marshmallows.
Mayonnaise (for use in
salads and salad dressings)
1 cup1 cup yogurt, sour cream or cottage cheese pureed in blender (use for all or part of mayonnaise called for in recipe).
Milk, buttermilk or sour 1 cup1 cup minus 1 Tbsp sweet milk, plus 1 Tbsp vinegar or lemon juice; let stand 5 minutes;
1 cup sweet milk plus 1 1/4-1 3/4 tsp cream of tartar;
1 cup yogurt (plain).
skim1 cup1/3 cup instant nonfat dry milk plus 7/8 cup water.
whole1 cup1/2 cup evaporated milk plus 1/2 cup water;
1 cup skim, 2% or reconstituted dry milk;
1 cup soy or almond milk;
1 cup fruit juice or potato water in baking;
1 cup water plus 1 1/2 tsp butter in baking;
1 cup buttermilk plus 1/2 tsp baking soda (decrease baking powder by 2 tsp).
sweetened condensed1 cupCombine 1 cup plus 2 Tbsp dry milk with 1/2 cup warm water and 3/4 cup sugar, mix well, may set pan in bowl of hot water to dissolve sugar.
Mint leaves, fresh chopped1/4 cup1 Tbsp dried mint leaves.
Molasses1 cup3/4 cup sugar, increase liquid by 5 Tbsp, decrease baking soda by 1/2 tsp, add 2 tsp baking powder;
3/4 cup sugar plus 1 1/4 tsp cream of tartar, increase liquid in recipe by 5 Tbsp.
Mushrooms, fresh1 lb3 oz dried plus 1 1/2 cups water;
1 8-oz can, drained weight.
Mustard, dry 1 tsp1 Tbsp prepared mustard;
1/2 tsp mustard seeds.
Nuts1 cup 1 cup rolled oats, browned (in baked products).
Oil (for sauteing)1/4 cup1/4 cup melted margarine, butter, bacon drippings, shortening or lard.
Onion 1 small1/4 cup chopped, fresh onion;
1 1/3 tsp onion salt;
1 to 2 Tbsp instant minced onion;
1 tsp onion powder.
Onion powder 1 tsp1/4 cup fresh onion, chopped.
Orange1 medium 6 to 8 Tbsp juice; 3/4 cup diced; 2 to 3 Tbsp grated rind.
Orange peel, dried 1 Tbsp2 or 3 Tbsp grated fresh orange peel (peel of medium orange).

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